autonomous vehicle

An autonomous vehicle or driverless car can sense its environment and drive/navigate without human interference.

What is an autonomous vehicle?

Self-driving cars combine sensors to anticipate and create their surroundings, such as radar, lidar, GPS and odometry. The system interprets information to identify navigation paths, obstacles and read signage.

 

Definition of an autonomous vehicle

Terminology varies in the self-driving car industry and organisations have defined the vocabulary.

 

History of autonomous vehicles (self-driving cars)

Automated driving systems (ADS) have been tested since the 1920s. A semi-automated car was developed in 1977, by Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, which used pre-marked streets interpreted by two cameras on the vehicle. It reached speeds of19 mph.

An autonomous car appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University’s Navlaband ALVprojects. By 1985, the ALV had demonstrated self-driving speeds on two-lane roads of 19 mph, with obstacle avoidance added in 1986. A major milestone was achieved in 1995, with CMU’s NavLab 5 completing the first autonomous coast-to-coast drive of the United States. Automated vehicle research in the United States was primarily funded by DARPA, the US Army, and the US Navy, yielding advances in speeds, controls, and sensor systems.

Navlab’s record achievement stood unmatched for two decades until 2015, when Delphi improved it by piloting an Audi, augmented with Delphi technology, over 3,400 mi through 15 states while remaining in self-driving mode 99% of the time. In 2015, the US states of Nevada, Florida, California, Virginia, and Michigan, together with Washington, DC, allowed the testing of automated cars on public roads. From 2016 to 2018, the European Commission funded an innovation strategy development for connected and automated driving through the Coordination Actions CARTRE and SCOUT.

In November 2017, Waymo announced that it had begun testing driverless cars without a safety driver in the driver position; however, there was still an employee in the car. In December 2018, Waymo was the first to commercialise a fully autonomous taxi service in the US, in Phoenix, Arizona. Waymo launched a geo-fenced driverless ride hailing service in Phoenix. The cars are being monitored in real-time by a team of remote engineers, and there are cases where the remote engineers need to intervene.

In March 2019, ahead of the autonomous racing series Roborace, Robocar set the Guinness World Record for being the fastest autonomous car in the world, reaching 175.49 mph. On March 5, 2021, Honda began leasing in Japan a limited edition of 100 Legend Hybrid EX sedans equipped with the newly approved Level 3 automated driving equipment which had been granted the safety certification by Japanese government, legally allowing drivers to take their eyes off the road.

Levels and classification of autonomous vehicle (self-driving cars)

  • Lv 0: The automated system issues warnings but has no vehicle control.
  • Lv 1: The driver and system share control. The driver controls steering and the system controls Cruise Control. Parking Assistance allows steering while speed is under manual control. Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) Type II is a further example of Level 1 self-driving. Automatic emergency braking alerts the driver to a crash and permits full braking capacity.
  • Lv2: The automated system takes full control of the vehicle: accelerating, braking, and steering. The driver must be prepared to intervene immediately. Contact between hand and wheel is often mandatory.
  • Lv 3: The driver can safely turn their attention off. The vehicle will handle situations that call for an immediate response, like emergency braking. The driver must still be prepared to intervene within some limited time, specified by the manufacturer. The automated system is effectively a co-driver that will alert you in when it is your turn to drive.
  • Lv 4: The driver may safely go to sleep. Self-driving is supported in limited areas or under special circumstances. The vehicle must be able to safely abort the journey. An automated taxi would fill this remit.
  • Lv 5: No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic vehicle that works on all kinds of surfaces, globally. Potentially this could be the future of delivery vehicles.

 

Hybrid Navigation Systems for autonomous vehicles

There are different systems like car navigation system, the environment perception, the laser perception, the radar perception, the visual perception and the vehicle control method.

The challenge is producing control systems capable of analysing sensory data to perceive and understand the road ahead. Modern self-driving cars generally use Bayesian simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) algorithms. Waymo has developed (DATMO), which sees cars and pedestrians. Simpler systems may use roadside real-time locating system (RTLS). Typical sensors include lidar, stereo vision, GPS and IMU.

Driverless vehicles require some form of machine vision. Automated cars are being developed with deep neural networks, in which neurons are simulated from the environment that activate the network.The neural network depends on an extensive amount of data extracted from real-life driving scenarios, enabling the neural network to learn. In May 2018 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had built an automated car that can navigate unmapped roads. Researchers developed a new system, called MapLite, which allows self-driving cars to drive on roads that they have never been on before. The system combines the GPS position of the vehicle, a sparse topological map such as OpenStreetMap, and a series of sensors that observe the road.

 

Limitations and disadvantages

The benefits could be limited by challenges such as disputes over liability, resistance by individuals to forfeiting control of their cars, concerns about safety, and the implementation of a legal framework. Other obstacles could include de-skilling and lower levels of driver experience for dealing with potentially dangerous situations, ethical problems where an automated vehicle’s software is forced during an unavoidable crash to choose between multiple harmful courses of action. Concerns about the potential for more intrusive mass surveillance, association and travel as a result of police and intelligence agency access.

Technological obstacles to overcome:

  • Artificial Intelligence is still not able to function properly in chaotic environments.
  • A car’s computer could potentially be compromised or hacked intentionally. The network could also be compromised.
  • Susceptibility of the car’s sensing to types of weather.
  • Competition for the radio spectrum desired for the car’s communication.
  • Road infrastructure will need to advance for automated cars to function.

Social challenges include:

  • Uncertainty about potential future regulation.
  • Employment – Companies working on the technology have an increasing recruitment problem in that the available talent pool has not grown with demand. Industry is steadily increasing freely available information sources, such as code, datasets and glossaries to widen the recruitment pool.

 

Autonomous vehicles pros and cons

Automated vehicles to the mass market is inevitable but a range of ethical issues have not been fully addressed.

  • The moral, financial, and criminal responsibility for crashes and breaches of law
  • The decisions a car is to make right before a potentially fatal crash
  • Privacy issues and data dissemination
  • Unemployment due to driver substitution
  • Exposure to hacking and malware
  • Power in the hands of a few global enterprises capable of consolidating AI capacity

There are different opinions on who should be held liable in case of a crash. The car manufacturers are responsible for crashes that are due to a technical malfunction. It could encourage manufacturers to innovate and heavily invest into fixes, due to financial consequences. However, there is a view that those owning the vehicle should be responsible since they know the risks. Other possible parties that can be held responsible in case of a technical failure include software engineers that programmed the code for the automated operation of the vehicles.

How should automated vehicles be programmed to behave in an emergency which will involve pedestrians, cyclists and other drivers. When a self-driving car is in following scenario: it’s driving with passengers and suddenly a person appears in its way. The car has to decide between the two options, either to run the person over or to avoid hitting the person by swerving into a wall or another car, killing the passengers and potentially the passengers in the other vehicle too. What moral basis would be used by an automated vehicle to make decisions and how could those be translated into software. Researchers have suggested following deontology and utilitarianism. Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics are a typical example of deontological ethics. This suggests that a car needs to follow strict written-out rules. Utilitarianism suggests the idea that any decision must be made based on the goal to maximise utility. Additional frameworks e.g. relativism, absolutism, and pluralism, are also being explored. Also, how the relevant weightings in human value terms should be given to all the other humans involved. These practical difficulties present as much of a challenge as the theoretical abstractions.

Privacy-related issues arise mainly from the interconnectivity of automated cars. This information gathering ranges from tracking of the routes taken, voice recording and video recording. The data and communications infrastructure needed to support these vehicles may also be capable of surveillance, especially if coupled to other data sets and advanced analytics.

The implementation of automated vehicles to the mass market might cost up to 5 million jobs in the US e.g. drivers of taxis, buses, vans, trucks, and e-hailing vehicles. Many industries, such as the auto insurance industry are indirectly affected. India and China have placed bans on automated cars with the former citing protection of jobs.

Self-driving car economy in UK

The economic value of self-driving vehicles in the UK is being speculated; the connected and autonomous vehicle (CAV) market could be worth over £40 billion by 2035. Researchers at the Connected Places Catapult, Element Energy and Cambridge Econometrics indicated that by 2035, 40% of new UK car sales could have self-driving capabilities. Potentially, this could manifest 40,000 skilled jobs, linked to the UK government’s commitment to a green future.

By 2021, the UK Government has already invested £200 million into CAV research and development (R&D), helping British start-ups develop their tech for use both in the UK and internationally.

 

Applications for autonomous vehicles

Otto and Starsky Robotics have focused on trucks. Automation is important due to the improved safety and also to the ability of fuel savings through platooning. Autonomous vans are being used by Ocado.

Transport systems – automated buses

China trialed the first automated public bus in Henan province in 2015. Baidu and King Long produce automated minibus, excluding a driving seat. Approximately 100 vehicles produced, 2018 will be the first year with commercial automated bus services.

In Europe, cities are trialing transport systems for automated cars. Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain have allowed public testing in traffic. In 2015, the UK launched public trials of the LUTZ Pathfinder automated pod in Milton Keynes. PSA Peugeot-Citroen tested in real conditions in the Paris.

 

Self-driving car accidents and incidents

In 2015, Tesla rolled out their Autopilot capability. In 2016, Tesla rolled out version 7.1, over-the-air update, adding the new summon feature that allows cars to retrieve or self-park at parking locations. As of November 2020, Tesla’s automated driving features is currently classified as a Level 2 driver assistance system.

On 20 January 2016, the first of five known fatal crashes of a Tesla with Autopilot occurred in China. Tesla alleged that the vehicle was badly damaged from the impact that their recorder was not able to conclusively prove that the car had been on Autopilot. An alternative allegation speculated that the car failed to take any evasive actions at the time. In 2018, in a subsequent civil suit between the father of the driver killed in Florida and Tesla, leading to Tesla not denying that the car had been on Autopilot at the time of the accident.

The second known fatal accident resulted in the occupant being killed in a crash with an 18-wheel tractor-trailer. According to NHTSA, preliminary reports indicate the crash occurred when the tractor-trailer made a left turn in front of the Tesla at an intersection on a non-controlled access highway, and the car failed to apply the brakes.

Tesla claimed that this was Tesla’s first known autopilot death in over 130 million miles driven by its customers with Autopilot engaged. According to Tesla there is a fatality every 94 million miles. However, this number also includes fatalities of the crashes, for instance, of motorcycle drivers with pedestrians.

 

Energy and environmental impacts

Vehicle automation can improve fuel economy of the car by optimising the drive cycle, as well as increasing congested traffic speeds. Additionally, self-driving cars will be able to accelerate and brake more efficiently, meaning higher fuel economy from reducing wasted energy. It is expected that convenience of the automated vehicles encourages the consumers to travel more, and this induced demand may partially or fully offset the fuel efficiency improvement brought by automation.

By reducing the labour and other costs of mobility as a service, automated cars could reduce the number of cars that are individually owned, replaced by taxi/pooling and other car-sharing services.

The lack of stressful driving, more productive time during the trip, and the potential savings in travel time and cost could become an incentive to live far away from cities, where housing is cheaper. There is also the risk that traffic congestion might increase. Appropriate public policies and regulations, such as zoning, pricing, and urban design are required to avoid the negative impacts.

Since many autonomous vehicles are going to rely on electricity to operate, the demand for lithium batteries increases. Similarly, radar, sensors, lidar, and high-speed internet connectivity require higher auxiliary power from vehicles, which manifests as greater power draw from batteries. This transition phase of oil to electricity allows companies to explore whether there are business opportunities. In 2020, Mohan, Sripad, Vaishnav & Viswanathan at Carnegie Mellon University found that the electricity consumption of all the automation technology, including sensors, computation, internet access as well as the increased drag from sensors causes up to a 15% impact on the range of an automated electric vehicle, therefore, implying that the larger battery requirement might not be as large as previously assumed.

 

Self driving car examples  – Waymo

Waymo is Google’s self-driving car effort, previously called Project Chauffeur. The AI technology is not in a position to be rolled out. The combination of all the updated tech like lidar and radar and the sophistication of contemporary deep learning models, the systems cannot handle unknown conditions well as humans. They make consequential mistakes when anomalies occur, which haven’t been filtered through their learning experience.

Thus, the outcome is that autonomy is not ready to be rolled out. testing continues through Waymo One, the robo-taxi service, available in parts of Phoenix. The scale to more crowded urban areas though remains in the distance.

Other manufacturers exploring this domain include;

  • Arity
  • WiTricity
  • Unity Technologies
  • Ouster
  • Cruise
  • Waymo
  • Voyage
  • Swift Navigation

 

 

Recent category posts

References

  1. Taeihagh, Araz; Lim, Hazel Si Min (2 January 2019). “Governing autonomous vehicles: emerging responses for safety, liability, privacy, cybersecurity, and industry risks”. Transport Reviews39 (1): 103–128. arXiv:1807.05720doi:10.1080/01441647.2018.1494640ISSN 0144-1647S2CID 49862783.
  2. ^ Maki, Sydney; Sage, Alexandria (19 March 2018). “Self-driving Uber car kills Arizona woman crossing street”Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  3. ^ Thrun, Sebastian (2010). “Toward Robotic Cars”. Communications of the ACM53 (4): 99–106. doi:10.1145/1721654.1721679S2CID 207177792.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d Hu, Junyan; et, al (2020). “Cooperative control of heterogeneous connected vehicle platoons: An adaptive leader-following approach”IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters5 (2): 977–984. doi:10.1109/LRA.2020.2966412S2CID 211055808.
  5. ^ Gehrig, Stefan K.; Stein, Fridtjof J. (1999). Dead reckoning and cartography using stereo vision for an automated car. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. 3. Kyongju. pp. 1507–1512. doi:10.1109/IROS.1999.811692ISBN 0-7803-5184-3.
  6. ^ Lassa, Todd (January 2013). “The Beginning of the End of Driving”Motor Trend. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  7. ^ “European Roadmap Smart Systems for Automated Driving” (PDF)EPoSS. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 12 February 2015.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f Lim, THazel Si Min; Taeihagh, Araz (2019). “Algorithmic Decision-Making in AVs: Understanding Ethical and Technical Concerns for Smart Cities”. Sustainability11(20): 5791. arXiv:1910.13122Bibcode:2019arXiv191013122Ldoi:10.3390/su11205791S2CID 204951009.
  9. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (8 October 2020). “Waymo finally launches an actual public, driverless taxi service”Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  10. ^ Levin, Tim (22 December 2020). “Elon Musk says Tesla will release its ‘full self-driving’ feature as a subscription in early 2021”Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 22 December2020.
  11. ^ “Nuro set to be California’s first driverless delivery service”BBC News. 24 December 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  12. ^ Phantom Auto’ will tour city”The Milwaukee Sentinel. 8 December 1926. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  13. ^ Vanderblit, Tom (6 February 2012). “Autonomous Cars Through The Ages”Wired. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  14. ^ Weber, Marc (8 May 2014). “Where to? A History of Autonomous Vehicles”Computer History Museum. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  15. ^ “Carnegie Mellon”Navlab: The Carnegie Mellon University Navigation Laboratory. The Robotics Institute. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  16. ^ Kanade, Takeo (February 1986). “Autonomous land vehicle project at CMU”. Proceedings of the 1986 ACM fourteenth annual conference on Computer science – CSC ’86CSC ’86 Proceedings of the 1986 ACM Fourteenth Annual Conference on Computer Science. Csc ’86. pp. 71–80. doi:10.1145/324634.325197ISBN 9780897911771S2CID 2308303.
  17. ^ Wallace, Richard (1985). “First results in robot road-following” (PDF)JCAI’85 Proceedings of the 9th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2014.
  18. Jump up to:a b Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2009). “Prof. Schmidhuber’s highlights of robot car history”. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  19. ^ Turk, M.A.; Morgenthaler, D.G.; Gremban, K.D.; Marra, M. (May 1988). “VITS-a vision system for automated land vehicle navigation”. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence10 (3): 342–361. doi:10.1109/34.3899ISSN 0162-8828.
  20. ^ University, Carnegie Mellon. “Look, Ma, No Hands-CMU News – Carnegie Mellon University”cmu.edu. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  21. ^ “Navlab 5 Details”cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  22. ^ Crowe, Steve (3 April 2015). “Back to the Future: Autonomous Driving in 1995 – Robotics Trends”roboticstrends.com. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  23. ^ “NHAA Journal”cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  24. ^ Council, National Research (2002). Technology Development for Army Unmanned Ground Vehiclesdoi:10.17226/10592ISBN 9780309086202.
  25. ^ Ackerman, Evan (25 January 2013). “Video Friday: Bosch and Cars, ROVs and Whales, and Kuka Arms and Chainsaws”IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  26. ^ “Audi of America / news / Pool / Reaffirmed Mission for Autonomous Audi TTS Pikes Peak”. AudiUSA.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  27. ^ “Nissan car drives and parks itself at Ceatec”. BBC. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  28. ^ “Toyota sneak previews self-drive car ahead of tech show”. BBC. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  29. ^ Rosen, Rebecca (9 August 2012). “Google’s Self-Driving Cars: 300,000 Miles Logged, Not a Single Accident Under Computer Control”The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  30. ^ “Vislab, University of Parma, Italy – 8000 miles driverless test begins”. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  31. ^ “VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge: Inaugural Ceremony – Milan, Italy”. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  32. ^ Selyukh, Alina. “A 24-Year-Old Designed A Self-Driving Minibus; Maker Built It in Weeks”All Tech Considered. NPR. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  33. ^ Novak, Matt. “The National Automated Highway System That Almost Was”Smithsonian. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  34. ^ “Back to the Future: Autonomous Driving in 1995 – Robotics Business Review”Robotics Business Review. 3 April 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  35. ^ “This Is Big: A Robo-Car Just Drove Across the Country”WIRED. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  36. ^ Ramsey, John (1 June 2015). “Self-driving cars to be tested on Virginia highways”Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  37. ^ Meyer, Gereon (2018). European Roadmaps, Programs, and Projects for Innovation in Connected and Automated Road Transport. In: G. Meyer, S. Beiker, Road Vehicle Automation 5. Springer 2018doi:10.1007/978-3-319-94896-6_3.
  38. ^ European Commission (2019). STRIA Roadmap Connected and Automated Transport: Road, Rail and Waterborne(PDF).
  39. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (7 November 2017). “Waymo is first to put fully self-driving cars on US roads without a safety driver”theverge.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  40. ^ “Early rider program – FAQ – Early Rider Program – Waymo”Waymo. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  41. ^ “On the Road – Waymo”Waymo. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  42. ^ “Waymo launches nation’s first commercial self-driving taxi service in Arizona”Washington Post. Retrieved 6 December2018.
  43. ^ “Waymo’s Self-Driving Future Looks Real Now That the Hype Is Fading”Bloomberg.com. 21 January 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  44. Jump up to:a b Ackerman, Evan (4 March 2021). “What Full Autonomy Means for the Waymo Driver”IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  45. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (8 October 2020). “Waymo will allow more people to ride in its fully driverless vehicles in Phoenix”The Verge. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  46. ^ “Robocar: Watch the world’s fastest autonomous car reach its record-breaking 282 km/h”Guinness World Records. 17 October 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  47. ^ “Tesla Crash Investigation Yields 9 NTSB Safety Recommendations” (Press release). National Transportation Safety Board. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  48. ^ “Honda to Begin Sales of Legend with New Honda SENSING Elite”Honda. 4 March 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  49. ^ “Honda to start selling world’s 1st level-3 autonomous car for $103K on Fri”Kyodo News. 4 March 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  50. ^ “世界初! 自動運転車(レベル3)の型式指定を行いました” [The world’s first! approval of level-3 type designation for certification]. MLIT, Japan (in Japanese). 11 November 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  51. ^ Beresford, Colin (4 March 2021). “Honda Legend Sedan with Level 3 Autonomy Available for Lease in Japan”Car and Driver. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  52. ^ https://fortune.com/2020/11/08/tesla-full-self-driving-autonomous-vehicle-safety
  53. ^ Leggett, Theo (22 May 2018). “Who is to blame for ‘self-driving car’ deaths?”BBC News – via BBC.
  54. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/23/business/teslas-autopilot-safety-investigations.html
  55. ^ Cellan-Jones, Rory (12 June 2018). “Insurers warning on ‘autonomous’ cars”BBC News – via BBC.
  56. Jump up to:a b Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S.J. (1991). “An Introduction to Autonomous Control Systems” (PDF)IEEE Control Systems Magazine11 (4): 5–13. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.840.976doi:10.1109/37.88585. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  57. ^ Wood, S. P.; Chang, J.; Healy, T.; Wood, J. “The potential regulatory challenges of increasingly autonomous motor vehicles”52nd Santa Clara Law Review4 (9): 1423–1502.
  58. ^ “Autonomous Emergency Braking – Euro NCAP”euroncap.com.
  59. Jump up to:a b c Regulation (EU) 2019/2144
  60. ^ The ABI and Thatcham warn against automated driving plans | Visordown
  61. ^ Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018
  62. ^ “Nissan’s Path to Self-Driving Cars? Humans in Call Centers”Wired.
  63. ^ “self-driving car Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia”pcmag.com.
  64. ^ “Self-Driving Cars Explained”Union of Concerned Scientists.
  65. ^ “Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018 becomes law”www.penningtonslaw.com. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  66. ^ “Support – Autopilot”TeslaArchived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  67. ^ Roberto Baldwin (9 March 2021). “Tesla Tells California DMV that FSD Is Not Capable of Autonomous Driving”Car and Driver.
  68. ^ “AdaptIVe system classification and glossary on Automated driving” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  69. ^ “AUTOMATED DRIVING LEVELS OF DRIVING AUTOMATION ARE DEFINED IN NEW SAE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD J3016” (PDF). 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2016.
  70. ^ “U.S. Department of Transportation Releases Policy on Automated Vehicle Development”National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 18 December2013.
  71. ^ SAE International
  72. Jump up to:a b “Automated Driving – Levels of Driving Automation are Defined in New SAE International Standard J3016” (PDF)SAE International. 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 July 2018.
  73. ^ “SAE Self-Driving Levels 0 to 5 for Automation – What They Mean”. 23 January 2020.
  74. ^ “Traffic Jam Chauffeur: Autonomous driving in traffic jams”. 28 August 2016.
  75. ^ https://europe.autonews.com/automakers/bmw-mercedes-bosch-welcome-regulatory-boost-eyes-self-driving-tech
  76. ^ Zhao, Jianfeng; Liang, Bodong; Chen, Qiuxia (2 January 2018). “The key technology toward the self-driving car”International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems6 (1): 2–20. doi:10.1108/IJIUS-08-2017-0008ISSN 2049-6427.
  77. ^ Zhu, Wentao; Miao, Jun; Hu, Jiangbi; Qing, Laiyun (27 March 2014). “Vehicle detection in driving simulation using extreme learning machine”. Neurocomputing128: 160–165. doi:10.1016/j.neucom.2013.05.052.
  78. ^ Durrant-Whyte, H.; Bailey, T. (5 June 2006). “Simultaneous localization and mapping”. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine13 (2): 99–110. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.135.9810doi:10.1109/mra.2006.1638022ISSN 1070-9932S2CID 8061430.
  79. Jump up to:a b c Huval, Brody; Wang, Tao; Tandon, Sameep; Kiske, Jeff; Song, Will; Pazhayampallil, Joel (2015). “An Empirical Evaluation of Deep Learning on Highway Driving”. arXiv:1504.01716 [cs.RO].
  80. ^ Corke, Peter; Lobo, Jorge; Dias, Jorge (1 June 2007). “An Introduction to Inertial and Visual Sensing”. The International Journal of Robotics Research26 (6): 519–535. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.93.5523doi:10.1177/0278364907079279S2CID 206499861.
  81. ^ “How Self-Driving Cars Work”. 14 December 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  82. Jump up to:a b Schmidhuber, Jürgen (January 2015). “Deep learning in neural networks: An overview”. Neural Networks61: 85–117. arXiv:1404.7828doi:10.1016/j.neunet.2014.09.003PMID 25462637S2CID 11715509.
  83. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (13 May 2018). “MIT built a self-driving car that can navigate unmapped country roads”theverge.com. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  84. ^ Connor-Simons, Adam; Gordon, Rachel (7 May 2018). “Self-driving cars for country roads: Today’s automated vehicles require hand-labeled 3-D maps, but CSAIL’s MapLite system enables navigation with just GPS and sensors”. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  85. ^ “Frequency of Target Crashes for IntelliDrive Safety Systems” (PDF).
  86. Jump up to:a b “No lights, no signs, no accidents – future intersections for driverless cars (video)”. Reuters.com. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  87. ^ “Mobility 2020”. Nordic Communications Corporation. 8 January 2016.
  88. ^ Andert, Edward; Khayatian, Mohammad; Shrivastava, Aviral (18 June 2017). “Crossroads”. Crossroads: Time-Sensitive Autonomous Intersection Management Technique. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. pp. 1–6. doi:10.1145/3061639.3062221ISBN 9781450349277S2CID 6173238.
  89. ^ Khayatian, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Mohammadreza; Shrivastava, Aviral (2018). “RIM: Robust Intersection Management for Connected Autonomous Vehicles”. 2018 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. pp. 35–44. doi:10.1109/RTSS.2018.00014ISBN 978-1-5386-7908-1S2CID 52093557.
  90. Jump up to:a b c d Lim, Hazel Si Min; Taeihagh, Araz (2018). “Autonomous Vehicles for Smart and Sustainable Cities: An In-Depth Exploration of Privacy and Cybersecurity Implications”. Energies11 (5): 1062. arXiv:1804.10367Bibcode:2018arXiv180410367Ldoi:10.3390/en11051062S2CID 13749987.
  91. ^ Nicholas, Negroponte (1 January 2000). Being digital. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0679762904OCLC 68020226.
  92. ^ Adhikari, Richard (11 February 2016). “Feds Put AI in the Driver’s Seat”Technewsworld. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  93. ^ Nichols, Greg (13 February 2016). “NHTSA chief takes conservative view on autonomous vehicles: “If you had perfect, connected autonomous vehicles on the road tomorrow, it would still take 20 to 30 years to turn over the fleet.ZDNet. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  94. ^ “New Allstate Survey Shows Americans Think They Are Great Drivers – Habits Tell a Different Story”PR Newswire. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  95. ^ Henn, Steve (31 July 2015). “Remembering When Driverless Elevators Drew Skepticism”NPR. Retrieved 14 August2016.
  96. ^ “Will Regulators Allow Self-Driving Cars in a Few Years?”Forbes. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  97. ^ Newton, Casey (18 November 2013). “Reliance on autopilot is now the biggest threat to flight safety, study says”The Verge. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  98. ^ Lin, Patrick (8 October 2013). “The Ethics of Autonomous Cars”The Atlantic.
  99. ^ Skulmowski, Alexander; Bunge, Andreas; Kaspar, Kai; Pipa, Gordon (16 December 2014). “Forced-choice decision-making in modified trolley dilemma situations: a virtual reality and eye tracking study”Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience8: 426. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00426PMC 4267265PMID 25565997.
  100. Jump up to:a b Gomes, Lee (28 August 2014). “Hidden Obstacles for Google’s Self-Driving Cars”MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  101. ^ SingularityU The Netherlands (1 September 2016), Carlo van de Weijer on real intelligence, retrieved 21 November 2016
  102. ^ “Hackers find ways to hijack car computers and take control”. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  103. ^ Ross, Philip E. (11 April 2014). “A Cloud-Connected Car Is a Hackable Car, Worries Microsoft”IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  104. ^ Moore-Colyer, Roland (12 February 2015). “Driverless cars face cyber security, skills and safety challenges”v3.co.uk. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  105. ^ Petit, J.; Shladover, S.E. (1 April 2015). “Potential Cyberattacks on Automated Vehicles”. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems16 (2): 546–556. doi:10.1109/TITS.2014.2342271ISSN 1524-9050S2CID 15605711.
  106. Jump up to:a b Tussy, Ron (29 April 2016). “Challenges facing Autonomous Vehicle Development”. AutoSens. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  107. ^ Zhou, Naaman (1 July 2017). “Volvo admits its self-driving cars are confused by kangaroos”The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  108. ^ Garvin, Glenn (21 March 2014). “Automakers say self-driving cars are on the horizon”Miami Herald. Retrieved 22 March2014.
  109. Jump up to:a b c Badger, Emily (15 January 2015). “5 confounding questions that hold the key to the future of driverless cars”The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  110. ^ Brodsky, Jessica (2016). “Autonomous Vehicle Regulation: How an Uncertain Legal Landscape May Hit the Brakes on Self-Driving Cars”Berkeley Technology Law Journal31(Annual Review 2016): 851–878. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  111. ^ Silver, David (20 January 2018). “Limited talent pool is standing in the way of driverless cars”The Next Web.
  112. ^ “DIY Robocars first year in review”.
  113. ^ Laursen, Lucas (28 August 2017). “The Tech That Won the First Formula Student Driverless Race”IEEE Spectrum.
  114. ^ “udacity/self-driving-car”GitHub. 31 December 2018.
  115. ^ “Berkeley Deep Drive”bdd-data.berkeley.edu.
  116. ^ “Glossary – Level Five Jobs”levelfivejobs.com. 27 July 2018.
  117. ^ “What’s big, orange and covered in LEDs? This start-up’s new approach to self-driving cars”NBC News.
  118. ^ Gold, Christian; Körber, Moritz; Hohenberger, Christoph; Lechner, David; Bengler, Klaus (1 January 2015). “Trust in Automation – Before and After the Experience of Take-over Scenarios in a Highly Automated Vehicle”Procedia Manufacturing3: 3025–3032. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.847ISSN 2351-9789.
  119. ^ “Survey Data Suggests Self-Driving Cars Could Be Slow To Gain Consumer Trust”GM Authority. Retrieved 3 September2018.
  120. ^ “Remembering When Driverless Elevators Drew Skepticism”NPR.org.
  121. ^ “Episode 642: The Big Red Button”NPR.org.
  122. ^ “Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: Opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations”. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice77.
  123. Jump up to:a b “Responsibility for Crashes of Autonomous Vehicles: An Ethical Analysis”. Sci Eng Ethics21.
  124. ^ “The Coming Collision Between Autonomous Vehicles and the Liability System”. Santa Clara Law Review52.
  125. ^ “The Trolley Problem”. The Yale Law Journal94 (6).
  126. ^ Himmelreich, Johannes (17 May 2018). “Never Mind the Trolley: The Ethics of Autonomous Vehicles in Mundane Situations”. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice21 (3): 669–684. doi:10.1007/s10677-018-9896-4ISSN 1386-2820S2CID 150184601.
  127. Jump up to:a b Meyer, G.; Beiker, S (2014). Road vehicle automation. Springer International Publishing. pp. 93–102.
  128. ^ Karnouskos, Stamatis (2020). “Self-Driving Car Acceptance and the Role of Ethics”. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management67 (2): 252–265. doi:10.1109/TEM.2018.2877307ISSN 0018-9391S2CID 115447875.
  129. Jump up to:a b c d Himmelreich, Johannes (2018). “Never Mind the Trolley: The Ethics of Autonomous Vehicles in Mundane Situations”. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice21 (3): 669. doi:10.1007/s10677-018-9896-4S2CID 150184601.
  130. ^ Lafrance, Adrienne (21 March 2016). “How Self-Driving Cars Will Threaten Privacy”. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  131. ^ Jack, Boeglin (1 January 2015). “The Costs of Self-Driving Cars: Reconciling Freedom and Privacy with Tort Liability in Autonomous Vehicle Regulation”Yale Journal of Law and Technology17 (1).
  132. ^ Greenhouse, Steven. “Autonomous vehicles could cost America 5 million jobs. What should we do about it?”Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  133. ^ Bertoncello, M.; Wee, D. “Ten ways autonomous driving could redefine the automotive world”McKinsey & Company. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  134. ^ “Employment by detailed occupation”bls.gov. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  135. ^ Fagnant, D. J.; Kockelman, K. (2015). “Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: Opportunities, barriers, and policy recommendations”. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice77: 167–181. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2015.04.003.
  136. Jump up to:a b c d Edmond Awad, Sohan Dsouza, Richard Kim, Jonathan Schulz, Joseph Jenrich, Azim Shariff, & Jean-François Bonnefon, & Iyan Rahwan (2018). “The Moral Machine Experiment”. Nature563 (7729): 59–64. Bibcode:2018Natur.563…59Adoi:10.1038/s41586-018-0637-6hdl:10871/39187PMID 30356211S2CID 53029241.
  137. Jump up to:a b Hornigold, Thomas. “Building a Moral Machine: Who Decides the Ethics of Self Driving Cars?”Singularity Hub.
  138. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Jean-François Bonnefon, Azim Shariff, & Iyad Rahwan (2016). “The Social Dilemma of Autonomous Vehicles”. Science352 (6293): 1573–6. arXiv:1510.03346Bibcode:2016Sci…352.1573Bdoi:10.1126/science.aaf2654PMID 27339987S2CID 35400794.
  139. ^ Rawhwan, Iyad. “The Social Dilemma of Driverless Cars”Youtube. TedXCambridge.
  140. ^ Liability, Safety and Infrastructure Concerns Slow Development of Self-Driving Cars
  141. ^ “Mcity testing center”University of Michigan. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  142. ^ “Adopted Regulations for Testing of Autonomous Vehicles by Manufacturers”DMV. 18 June 2016. Retrieved 13 February2017.
  143. ^ “The Pathway to Driverless Cars: A Code of Practice for testing”. 19 July 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  144. ^ “Automobile simulation example”Cyberbotics. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  145. ^ Hallerbach, Sven; Xia, Yiqun; Eberle, Ulrich; Koester, Frank (3 April 2018). “Simulation-based Identification of Critical Scenarios for Cooperative and Automated Vehicles”Toolchain for simulation-based development and testing of Automated DrivingSAE World Congress 2018. SAE Technical Paper Series. 1. pp. 93–106. doi:10.4271/2018-01-1066. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  146. ^ “Apply for an Autonomous Vehicle Technology Demonstration / Testing Permit”. 9 May 2017.
  147. ^ Krok, Andrew. “Apple increases self-driving test fleet from 3 to 27”Roadshow. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  148. ^ Hall, Zac (20 March 2018). “Apple ramping self-driving car testing, more CA permits than Tesla and Uber”Electrek. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  149. ^ “Yandex takes its self-driving test cars out for a spin in the snow”TechCrunch. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  150. ^ “A Year of Yandex Self-Driving Milestones”yandex.com. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  151. ^ “Yandex Self-Driving Car. First Long-Distance Ride”youtube.com. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  152. ^ “Компания “Яндекс” презентовала беспилотный автомобиль” [Yandex presented driverless car]. priumnojay.ru. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  153. ^ “Нет закона и интернета: почему по дорогам Татарстана не ездят беспилотники? | Inkazan”inkazan.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  154. ^ Яндекс” начал испытания собственного беспилотного автомобиля в Лас-Вегасе” [“Yandex” has started testing their driverless car in Las Vegas]. abctv.kz. Retrieved 30 July2019.
  155. ^ Kleinman, Zoe (6 January 2020). “Russian car with no driver at wheel tours Vegas”BBC News. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  156. ^ “Yandex’s self-driving car hits the streets of Tel Aviv – watch”The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 24 March2020.
  157. ^ “Governor Whitmer announces providers selected for NAIAS 2020 Michigan Mobility Challenge | Michigan Business”Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC). Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  158. ^ “Russia’s Yandex Joins the Self-Driving Car Million-Mile Club”Bloomberg.com. 17 October 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  159. ^ “Yandex claims 2 million self-driving car miles, double in 4 months”VentureBeat. 14 February 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  160. ^ “Yandex begins testing self-driving cars in Michigan”VentureBeat. 6 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  161. Jump up to:a b Wang, Brian (25 March 2018). “Uber’ self-driving system was still 400 times worse [than] Waymo in 2018 on key distance intervention metric”NextBigFuture.com. Retrieved 25 March2018.
  162. ^ “First self-driving race car completes 1.8 kilometre track”euronews. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  163. ^ California Department of Motor Vehicles. “Distance between disengagements”Statista. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  164. ^ “California DMV releases autonomous vehicle disengagement reports for 2019”VentureBeat. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  165. ^ Metcalfe, John (5 October 2015). “China Rolls Out the ‘World’s First Driverless Bus”. Bloomberg CityLab. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  166. ^ Davies, Alex (7 October 2015). “China’s Self-Driving Bus Shows Autonomous Tech’s Real Potential”Wired. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  167. ^ “China’s first Level 4 self-driving shuttle enters volume production”newatlas.com.
  168. ^ LLC, Baidu USA (4 July 2018). “Baidu Joins Forces with Softbank’s SB Drive, King Long to Bring Apollo-Powered Autonomous Buses to Japan”GlobeNewswire News Room.
  169. ^ “Driverless cars take to the road”. E.U.CORDIS Research Program CitynetMobil. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  170. ^ “Snyder OKs self-driving vehicles on Michigan’s roads”Detroit News. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  171. ^ “BBC News – UK to allow driverless cars on public roads in January”BBC News. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  172. ^ Burn-Callander, Rebecca (11 February 2015). “This is the Lutz pod, the UK’s first driverless car”Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  173. ^ “Autonomous vehicle: the automated driving car of the future”PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  174. ^ Valeo Autonomous iAV Car Driving System CES 2015YouTube. 5 January 2015.
  175. ^ Hayward, Michael (26 January 2017). “First New Zealand autonomous vehicle demonstration kicks off at Christchurch Airport”stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  176. ^ “Self-driving car to take on Tauranga traffic this week”Bay of Plenty Times. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  177. ^ “NZ’s first self-drive vehicle demonstration begins”stuff.co.nz. 17 November 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  178. ^ Frykberg, Eric (28 June 2016). “Driverless buses: ‘It is going to be bigRadio New Zealand. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  179. ^ NVIDIA Introduces DRIVE AGX Orin — Advanced, Software-Defined Platform for Autonomous Machines | Tuesday, December 17, 2019 | scale from a Level 2 to full self-driving Level 5 vehicle
  180. ^ “An Open Source Self-Driving Car”Udacity. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  181. ^ Fazzini, Kate (13 August 2018). “Elon Musk: Tesla to open-source some self-driving software for safety”cnbc.com.
  182. ^ Staff, Ars (24 April 2018). “This startup’s CEO wants to open-source self-driving car safety testing”Ars Technica.
  183. Jump up to:a b c d Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Khreis, Haneen; Frumkin, Howard (31 January 2020). “Autonomous Vehicles and Public Health”Annual Review of Public Health41: 329–345. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094035ISSN 0163-7525PMID 32004116.
  184. Jump up to:a b “[INFOGRAPHIC] Autonomous Cars Could Save The US$1.3 Trillion Dollars A Year”. businessinsider.com. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  185. ^ Miller, John (19 August 2014). “Self-Driving Car Technology’s Benefits, Potential Risks, and Solutions”theenergycollective.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  186. ^ Whitwam, Ryan (8 September 2014). “How Google’s self-driving cars detect and avoid obstacles”ExtremeTech. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  187. Jump up to:a b Cowen, Tyler (28 May 2011). “Can I See Your License, Registration and C.P.U.?”The New York Times.
  188. ^ Saunders, John (10 August 2020). “How can autonomous cars help reduce accidents?”London Business News | Londonlovesbusiness.com. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  189. ^ Fleetwood, Janet (16 February 2017). “Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles”American Journal of Public Health107 (4): 532–537. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303628ISSN 0090-0036PMC 5343691PMID 28207327.
  190. ^ Ramsey, Jonathon (8 March 2017). “The Way We Talk About Autonomy Is a Lie, and That’s Dangerous”thedrive.com. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  191. ^ How Autonomous Cars Work (radio interview)
  192. ^ Sparrow, Robert; Howard, Mark (2017). “When human beings are like drunk robots: Driverless vehicles, ethics, and the future of transport”. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies80: 206–215. doi:10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.014.
  193. ^ Merat, Natasha; Jamson, A. Hamish (June 2009). “How do drivers behave in a highly automated car?” (PDF)Drive Assessment 2009 Proceedings. pp. 514–521. doi:10.17077/DRIVINGASSESSMENT.1365ISBN 9-78087414162-7S2CID 17820234Drivers’ response to all critical events was found to be much later in the automated driving condition, compared to manual driving.
  194. ^ Adams, Ian (30 December 2016). “Self-Driving Cars Will Make Organ Shortages Even Worse”Slate. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  195. Jump up to:a b Larson, William; Zhao, Weihua (2020). “Self-driving cars and the city: Effects on sprawl, energy consumption, and housing affordability”. Regional Science and Urban Economics81: 103484. doi:10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2019.103484ISSN 0166-0462.
  196. Jump up to:a b c Light, Donald (8 May 2012). A Scenario” The End of Auto Insurance (Technical report). Celent.
  197. Jump up to:a b Mui, Chunka (19 December 2013). “Will The Google Car Force A Choice Between Lives And Jobs?”Forbes. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  198. ^ Gosman, Tim (24 July 2016). “Along for the ride: How driverless cars can become commonplace”. Brand Union. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  199. ^ Dudley, David (January 2015). “The Driverless Car Is (Almost) Here; The self-driving car – a godsend for older Americans – is now on the horizon”AARP the Magazine. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  200. ^ “Driver licensing system for older drivers in New South Wales, Australia”NSW Government. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  201. ^ Stenquist, Paul (7 November 2014). “In Self-Driving Cars, a Potential Lifeline for the Disable”The New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  202. Jump up to:a b c d e Anderson, James M.; Kalra, Nidhi; Stanley, Karlyn D.; Sorensen, Paul; Samaras, Constantine; Oluwatola, Oluwatobi A. (2016). “Autonomous Vehicle Technology: A Guide for Policymakers”RAND Corporation. Retrieved 30 October2016.
  203. ^ Simonite, Tom (1 November 2014). “Self-Driving Motorhome: RV of the Future?”. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  204. ^ Ashley Jalsey III, Driverless cars promise far greater mobility for the elderly and people with disabilitiesWashington Post(23 November 2017).
  205. ^ Henry Claypool, Amitai Bin-Nun & Jeffrey Gerlach, Self-Driving Cars: The Impact on People with Disabilities(January 2017), Ruderman Family Foundation/Securing America’s Future Energy.
  206. ^ “Who’s Ready to Put Their Kid on a Self-Driving School Bus?”Wired. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  207. ^ McParland, Tom. “Why Autonomous Cars Could Be The Change Disabled People Need”Jalopnik. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  208. ^ Jain, Lochlann (2004). Dangerous instrumentality”: the bystander as subject in automobility”Cultural Anthropology19 (1): 61–94. doi:10.1525/can.2004.19.1.61S2CID 17924196.
  209. ^ Lee, Timothy (31 January 2015). “Driverless cars will mean the end of mass car ownership”. Vox. Retrieved 31 January2015.
  210. ^ O’Toole, Randal, Policy Implications of Autonomous Vehicles (18 September 2014). Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 758. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2549392
  211. ^ Pinto, Cyrus (2012). “How autonomous vehicle policy in California and Nevada addresses technological and non-technological liabilities”. Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology and Society5.
  212. ^ Badger, Emily (15 January 2015). “5 confounding questions that hold the key to the future of driverless cars”The Washington PostISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 27 November2017.
  213. ^ Guerra, Erick (1 June 2016). “Planning for Cars That Drive Themselves: Metropolitan Planning Organizations, Regional Transportation Plans, and Autonomous Vehicles”. Journal of Planning Education and Research36 (2): 210–224. doi:10.1177/0739456X15613591ISSN 0739-456XS2CID 106654883.
  214. ^ Litman, Todd. “Autonomous vehicle implementation predictions.” Victoria Transport Policy Institute 28 (2014).
  215. ^ Humphreys, Pat (19 August 2016). “Retail Revolution”Transport and Travel. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  216. ^ “Get ready for automated cars”Houston Chronicle. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  217. ^ Simonite, Tom (25 October 2013). “Data Shows Google’s Robot Cars Are Smoother, Safer Drivers Than You or I”MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  218. ^ O’Toole, Randal (18 January 2010). Gridlock: Why We’re Stuck in Traffic and What To Do About It. Cato Institute. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-935308-24-9.
  219. ^ “Future Car Focus: Robot Cars”. MSN Autos. 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  220. ^ Ackerman, Evan (4 September 2012). “Study: Intelligent Cars Could Boost Highway Capacity by 273%”Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  221. ^ Gibson, David K. (28 April 2016). “Can we banish the phantom traffic jam?”. BBC.
  222. ^ “Autonomous Intersection Management – FCFS policy with 6 lanes in all directions”. The University of Texas at Austin Computer Science Department. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  223. ^ “Mass unemployment fears over Google artificial intelligence plans”. London. 29 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December2013.
  224. ^ Dvorak, John C. (30 September 2015). “There’s a Bumpy Road Ahead for Driverless Cars”PCMag. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  225. ^ Benedikt Frey, Carl; Osborne, Michael A. (1 January 2017). “The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?”. Technological Forecasting and Social Change114: 254–280. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.395.416doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.019ISSN 0040-1625.
  226. ^ Anwar, Mohammad Amir; Graham, Mark (20 April 2020). “Digital labour at economic margins: African workers and the global information economy”. Review of African Political Economy47 (163): 95–105. doi:10.1080/03056244.2020.1728243ISSN 0305-6244S2CID 214074400.
  227. Jump up to:a b Fagnant, Daniel J.; Kockelman, Kara (1 July 2015). “Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations”Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice77: 167–181. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2015.04.003ISSN 0965-8564.
  228. Jump up to:a b c d e f Taiebat, Morteza; Brown, Austin; Safford, Hannah; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming (2019). “A Review on Energy, Environmental, and Sustainability Implications of Connected and Automated Vehicles”. Environmental Science & Technology52 (20): 11449–11465. arXiv:1901.10581Bibcode:2019arXiv190110581Tdoi:10.1021/acs.est.8b00127PMID 30192527S2CID 52174043.
  229. ^ Pyper, Julia (15 September 2015). “Self-Driving Cars Could Cut Greenhouse Gas Pollution”Scientific American. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  230. ^ Woodyard, Chris (5 March 2015). “McKinsey study: Self-driving cars yield big benefits”USA Today. Retrieved 4 June2015.
  231. ^ “Self-driving cars: The next revolution” (PDF). kpmg.com. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  232. ^ Smith, Noah (5 November 2015). “The downside of driverless cars”The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 30 October2016.
  233. Jump up to:a b Ufberg, Max (15 October 2015). “Whoops: The Self-Driving Tesla May Make Us Love Urban Sprawl Again”Wired. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  234. ^ Mohan, Aniruddh; Sripad, Shashank; Vaishnav, Parth; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian (June 2020). “Trade-offs between automation and light vehicle electrification”Nature Energy5 (7): 543–549. arXiv:1908.08920Bibcode:2020NatEn…5..543Mdoi:10.1038/s41560-020-0644-3S2CID 220504021.
  235. ^ “AAA Studies Technology Behind Self-Driving Cars”Your AAA Network. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  236. ^ “Spaced Out parking report”racfoundation.org. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  237. ^ Cars are parked 95% of the time”. Let’s check!”reinventingparking.org. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  238. ^ Chester, Mikhail; Fraser, Andrew; Matute, Juan; Flower, Carolyn; Pendyala, Ram (2 October 2015). “Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth”. Journal of the American Planning Association81 (4): 268–286. doi:10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879ISSN 0194-4363S2CID 133540522.
  239. ^ Peters, Adele (20 July 2017). “See Just How Much of a City’s Land Is Used For Parking Spaces”Fast Company. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  240. ^ Stewart, Jack (25 March 2018). “Forget Self Driving. The Future is in Self Parking”Wired.
  241. ^ Miller, Owen. “Robotic Cars and Their New Crime Paradigms”. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  242. ^ Neumann, Peter G. (September 2016). “Risks of Automation: A Cautionary Total-system Perspective of Our Cyberfuture”. Commun. ACM59 (10): 26–30. doi:10.1145/2988445ISSN 0001-0782S2CID 1066738.
  243. ^ JafariNaimi, Nassim (2018). “Our Bodies in the Trolley’s Path, or Why Self-driving Cars Must *Not* Be Programmed to Kill”. Science, Technology, & Human Values43 (2): 302–323. doi:10.1177/0162243917718942S2CID 148793137.
  244. ^ Chai, Zhanxiang; Nie, Tianxin; Becker, Jan (2021), “Top Ten Challenges Facing Autonomous Driving”Autonomous Driving Changes the Future, Singapore: Springer Singapore, pp. 137–178, doi:10.1007/978-981-15-6728-5_6ISBN 978-981-15-6727-8, retrieved 25 October 2020
  245. ^ Acharya, Anish (16 December 2014). “Are We Ready for Driver-less Vehicles? Security vs. Privacy – A Social Perspective”. arXiv:1412.5207 [cs.CY].
  246. ^ Lin, Patrick (22 January 2014). “What If Your Autonomous Car Keeps Routing You Past Krispy Kreme?”The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  247. ^ Glielmo, Luigi. “Vehicle-to-Vehicle/Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Control” (PDF).
  248. ^ Harris, Mark (16 July 2014). “FBI warns driverless cars could be used as ‘lethal weaponsThe Guardian.
  249. ^ McCarthy, Tom (6 September 2017). “Self-driving cars must have technology to prevent use in terror, lawmakers say”The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  250. ^ “You can take a ride in a self-driving Lyft during CES”The Verge. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  251. ^ Snow, Shawn (29 August 2017). “The US Army is developing autonomous armored vehicles”Army Times. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  252. ^ “Driver-less car design: Sleep-walking into the future?”. 5 April 2016. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  253. ^ Company, Ford Motor (7 January 2019). “How ‘Talking’ and ‘Listening’ Vehicles Could Make Roads Safer, Cities Better”Medium. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  254. ^ “Volvo’s Fully Autonomous 360c Concept Vehicle Even Lets You Sleep in It”. 6 September 2018. Retrieved 26 November2018.
  255. ^ Nelson, Gabe (14 October 2015). “Tesla beams down ‘autopilot’ mode to Model S”Automotive News. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  256. ^ Zhang, Benjamin (10 January 2016). “ELON MUSK: In 2 years your Tesla will be able to drive from New York to LA and find you”Automotive News. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  257. ^ Morris, David (8 November 2020). “What’s in a name? For Tesla’s Full Self Driving, it may be danger”Fortune. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  258. ^ Charlton, Alistair (13 June 2016). “Tesla Autopilot is ‘trying to kill me’, says Volvo R&D chief”International Business Times. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  259. ^ Golson, Jordan (27 April 2016). “Volvo autonomous car engineer calls Tesla’s Autopilot a ‘wannabeThe Verge. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  260. ^ Korosec, Kirsten (15 December 2015). “Elon Musk Says Tesla Vehicles Will Drive Themselves in Two Years”Fortune. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  261. ^ “Path to Autonomy: Self-Driving Car Levels 0 to 5 Explained”Car and Driver. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  262. ^ Moogal, Frugal (15 September 2019). “What Is Tesla Autopilot? Answers For FAQ”CleanTechnica. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  263. ^ “Tesla Fatalities Dataset”datasetsearch.research.google.com. Retrieved 17 October2020.
  264. ^ Horwitz, Josh; Timmons, Heather (20 September 2016). “There are some scary similarities between Tesla’s deadly crashes linked to Autopilot”Quartz. Retrieved 19 March2018.
  265. ^ “China’s first accidental death due to Tesla’s automatic driving: not hitting the front bumper”China State Media (in Chinese). 14 September 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  266. ^ Felton, Ryan (27 February 2018). “Two Years On, A Father Is Still Fighting Tesla Over Autopilot And His Son’s Fatal Crash”jalopnik.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  267. Jump up to:a b Yadron, Danny; Tynan, Dan (1 July 2016). “Tesla driver dies in first fatal crash while using autopilot mode”The GuardianSan Francisco. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  268. Jump up to:a b Vlasic, Bill; Boudette, Neal E. (30 June 2016). “Self-Driving Tesla Involved in Fatal Crash”The New York Times. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  269. ^ Office of Defects Investigations, NHTSA (28 June 2016). “ODI Resume – Investigation: PE 16-007” (PDF)National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  270. ^ Shepardson, David (12 July 2016). “NHTSA seeks answers on fatal Tesla Autopilot crash”Automotive News. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  271. ^ “A Tragic Loss” (Press release). Tesla Motors. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016This is the first known fatality in just over 130 million miles where Autopilot was activated. Among all vehicles in the US, there is a fatality every 94 million miles. Worldwide, there is a fatality approximately every 60 million miles.
  272. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam. “Adding Some Statistical Perspective To Tesla Autopilot Safety Claims”.
  273. ^ Administration, National Highway Traffic Safety. “FARS Encyclopedia”.
  274. ^ Levin, Alan; Plungis, Jeff (8 July 2016). “NTSB to scrutinize driver automation with probe of Tesla crash”Automotive News. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  275. ^ “Fatal Tesla Autopilot accident investigation ends with no recall ordered”The Verge. 19 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  276. ^ Self-driving Car Logs More Miles, googleblog
  277. ^ A First DriveYouTube. 27 May 2014.
  278. ^ “Google Self-Driving Car Project, Monthly Report, March 2016” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  279. ^ “Waymo”Waymo.
  280. ^ Davies, Alex (13 December 2016). “Meet the Blind Man Who Convinced Google Its Self-Driving Car Is Finally Ready”Wired.
  281. Jump up to:a b “For the first time, Google’s self-driving car takes some blame for a crash”Washington Post. 29 February 2016.
  282. ^ “Google founder defends accident records of self-driving cars”Los Angeles TimesAssociated Press. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  283. ^ Mathur, Vishal (17 July 2015). “Google Autonomous Car Experiences Another Crash”Government Technology. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  284. ^ “Google’s Self-Driving Car Caused Its First Crash”Wired. February 2016.
  285. ^ “Passenger bus teaches Google robot car a lesson”Los Angeles Times. 29 February 2016.
  286. ^ “Uber to Suspend Autonomous Tests After Arizona Accident”. 25 March 2017 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  287. ^ “Uber’s Self-Driving Cars Hit 2 Million Miles As Program Regains Momentum”. 22 December 2017 – via www.forbes.com.
  288. ^ Bensinger, Greg; Higgins, Tim (22 March 2018). “Video Shows Moments Before Uber Robot Car Rammed into Pedestrian”The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 March2018.
  289. ^ Lubben, Alex (19 March 2018). “Self-driving Uber killed a pedestrian as human safety driver watched”Vice News. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  290. ^ “Human Driver Could Have Avoided Fatal Uber Crash, Experts Say”. 22 March 2018 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  291. ^ “Governor Ducey suspends Uber from automated vehicle testing”KNXV-TV. Associated Press. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  292. ^ Said, Carolyn (27 March 2018). “Uber puts the brakes on testing robot cars in California after Arizona fatality”San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  293. ^ “Preliminary Report Released for Crash Involving Pedestrian, Uber Technologies, Inc., Test Vehicle” (PDF). 24 May 2018.
  294. ^ caret-down
  295. ^ Gibbs, Samuel (9 November 2017). “Self-driving bus involved in crash less than two hours after Las Vegas launch”The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  296. ^ “Consumers in US and UK Frustrated with Intelligent Devices That Frequently Crash or Freeze, New Accenture Survey Finds”. Accenture. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  297. ^ Yvkoff, Liane (27 April 2012). “Many car buyers show interest in autonomous car tech”CNET. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  298. ^ “Große Akzeptanz für selbstfahrende Autos in Deutschland”. motorvision.de. 9 October 2012. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  299. ^ “Autonomous Cars Found Trustworthy in Global Study”. autosphere.ca. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  300. ^ “Autonomous cars: Bring ’em on, drivers say in Insurance.com survey”Insurance.com. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  301. ^ “Autonomous Vehicle Predictions: Auto Experts Offer Insights on the Future of Self-Driving Cars”PartCatalog.com. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  302. Jump up to:a b Kyriakidis, M.; Happee, R.; De Winter, J. C. F. (2015). “Public opinion on automated driving: Results of an international questionnaire among 5,000 respondents”. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour32: 127–140. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2015.04.014.
  303. ^ Hohenberger, C.; Spörrle, M.; Welpe, I. M. (2016). “How and why do men and women differ in their willingness to use automated cars? The influence of emotions across different age groups”. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice94: 374–385. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2016.09.022.
  304. ^ Hall-Geisler, Kristen (22 December 2016). “Autonomous cars seen as smarter than human drivers”TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  305. ^ Smith, Aaron; Anderson, Monica (4 October 2017). “Automation in Everyday Life”.
  306. ^ Hewitt, Charlie; Politis, Ioannis; Amanatidis, Theocharis; Sarkar, Advait (2019). “Assessing public perception of self-driving cars: the autonomous vehicle acceptance model”. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces. ACM Press: 518–527. doi:10.1145/3301275.3302268S2CID 67773581.
  307. ^ “GAR – 1968 Vienna Convention”. 1 December 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017.
  308. ^ Imai, Takeyoshi (December 2019). “Legal regulation of autonomous driving technology: Current conditions and issues in Japan”IATSS Research43 (4): 263–267. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  309. ^ “昭和三十五年法律第百五号 道路交通法 (令和二年法律第五十二号による改正)” [Road Traffic Act of 1960 no.105 (amended by 2019 act no.52)]. e-Gov Japan. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  310. ^ “道路運送車両法(昭和二十六年法律第百八十五号)(令和元年法律第十四号による改正)” [Road Transport Vehicle Act of 1951 no.185 (amended by 2019 act no.14)]. e-Gov Japan. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  311. ^ “About SIP 2nd Phase”SIP-adus. Retrieved 10 March2021.
  312. ^ “官民ITS構想・ロードマップ2020” [Public and Private ITS Plan: Roadmap 2020] (pdf)Cabinet Secretariat, Japan (in Japanese). 15 July 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  313. ^ Bryant Walker Smith (1 November 2012). “Automated Vehicles Are Probably Legal in The United States”. The Center for Internet and Society (CIS) at Stanford Law School. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  314. ^ Canis, Bill (19 September 2017). Issues in Autonomous Vehicle Deployment (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  315. ^ Bryant Walker Smith. “Automated Driving: Legislative and Regulatory Action”. The Center for Internet and Society (CIS) at Stanford Law School. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  316. ^ Kang, Cecilia (19 September 2016). “Self-Driving Cars Gain Powerful Ally: The Government”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  317. ^ “Nevada enacts law authorizing autonomous (driverless) vehicles”. Green Car Congress. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  318. ^ Knapp, Alex (22 June 2011). “Nevada Passes Law Authorizing Driverless Cars”ForbesArchived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  319. ^ Dobby, Christine (24 June 2011). “Nevada state law paves the way for driverless cars”Financial Post. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  320. Jump up to:a b Markoff, John (10 May 2011). “Google Lobbies Nevada To Allow Self-Driving Cars”The New York Times. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
  321. ^ “Bill AB511 Nevada Legislature” (PDF)Nevada Legislature. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  322. ^ Healey, Tim (24 June 2011). “Nevada Passes Law Allowing Self-Driving Cars”Motor Trend. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  323. ^ Ryan, Cy (7 May 2012). “Nevada issues Google first license for self-driving car”Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  324. ^ Valdes, Ana M. (5 July 2012). “Florida embraces self-driving cars, as engineers and lawmakers prepare for the new technology”WPTV. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013.
  325. ^ Oram, John (27 September 2012). “Governor Brown Signs California Driverless Car Law at Google HQ”. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012.
  326. ^ “New Law Allows Driverless Cars on Michigan Roads”CBS Detroit. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  327. ^ Selle, Jeff (7 August 2014). “Aye, Robot: Cd’A City Council approves robot ordinance”Coeur d’Alene Press.
  328. ^ “Bill Text – AB-2866 Autonomous vehicles”leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  329. ^ “Federal Automated Vehicles Policy”Department of Transportation. 14 September 2016. Retrieved 20 October2016.
  330. ^ “Public Workshop Autonomous Vehicles” (PDF). 19 October 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  331. ^ Levin, Sam (15 December 2016). “Uber blames humans for self-driving car traffic offenses as California orders a halt”The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  332. Jump up to:a b “UK to road test driverless cars”. BBC. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  333. ^ “Des véhicules autonomes sur route ouverte à Bordeaux en octobre 2015”usine-digitale.fr.
  334. ^ Greenblatt, Nathan (19 January 2016). “Self-Driving Cars Will Be Ready Before Our Laws Are”IEEE Spectrum.
  335. ^ “Swisscom reeals the first driverless car on Swiss roads”. Swisscom. 12 May 2015. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  336. ^ “Zalazone home page”zalazone.hu. Retrieved 24 January2018.
  337. ^ “Hungary as one of the European hubs for automated and connected driving” (PDF)ZalaZone. Retrieved 23 January2018.
  338. ^ Eight Act amending the Road Traffic Act
  339. ^ Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2019 on type-approval requirements for motor vehicle
  340. ^ Maierbrugger, Arno (1 August 2016). “Singapore to launch self-driving taxis next year | Investvine”. Retrieved 9 August2016.
  341. ^ Ramirez, Elaine (7 February 2017). “How South Korea Plans To Put Driverless Cars On The Road By 2020”Forbes. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  342. ^ https://austroads.com.au/drivers-and-vehicles/future-vehicles-and-technology/trials
  343. ^https://www.infrastructure.gov.au/transport/automatedvehicles/index.aspx
  344. ^https://www.infrastructure.gov.au/transport/automatedvehicles/index.aspx
  345. ^ Slone, Sean. “State Laws on Autonomous Vehicles”. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  346. ^ Pattinson, Jo-Ann; Chen, Haibo; Basu, Subhajit (18 November 2020). “Legal issues in automated vehicles: critically considering the potential role of consent and interactive digital interfaces”Humanities and Social Sciences Communications7 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1057/s41599-020-00644-2ISSN 2662-9992S2CID 227061202.
  347. ^ “Ten ways autonomous driving could redefine the automotive world”. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  348. ^ “Marketplace of change: Automobile insurance in the era of autonomous vehicles”. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  349. ^ “Types of Product Liability Claims”Cornell Law.
  350. ^ Boba, Antonio (December 1982). “Responsibility for Equipment Failure: Consumer vs. Manufacturer”. Anesthesiology57 (6): 547. doi:10.1097/00000542-198212000-00027ISSN 0003-3022.
  351. ^ Hancock, P. A.; Nourbakhsh, Illah; Stewart, Jack (16 April 2019). “On the future of transportation in an era of automated and autonomous vehicles”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America116 (16): 7684–7691. doi:10.1073/pnas.1805770115ISSN 0027-8424PMC 6475395PMID 30642956.
  352. Jump up to:a b “How Honda’s Level 3 self-driving technology works”. Automotive News Europe. 5 March 2021. Retrieved 5 March2021.
  353. ^ BMW Details Plan For Fully Automated Driving By 2021
  354. ^ “Why the 2019 Audi A8 won’t get Level 3 partial automation in the US”Roadshow. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  355. ^ “All Tesla Cars Being Produced Now Have Full Self-Driving Hardware”. 19 October 2016.
  356. ^ Guess, Megan (20 October 2016). “Teslas will now be sold with enhanced hardware suite for full autonomy”Ars Technica. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  357. ^ Stoklosa, Alexander (22 October 2020). “Tesla Puts “Beta” Version of Full Self-Driving Capability In Hands of Select Few”Motor Trend. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  358. ^ Britt, Ryan. “The 5 Best (and Worst) Autonomous Cars in All of Sci-Fi”.
  359. ^ “3D-Drucker: Warum die Industrie wieder einen Trend verschläft” (in German). t3n News. Retrieved 22 January2017.
  360. ^ Bull’ episode 10 preview: The self-driving car case and Ginny Bretton”. 3 January 2017.
  361. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-driving_car
  362. https://bdtechtalks.com/2021/04/08/waymo-ceo-reshuffling-self-driving-car-industry/
  363. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-on-the-cusp-of-a-transport-revolution-as-self-driving-vehicles-set-to-be-worth-nearly-42-billion-by-2035