Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy. The term refers to artificial human cloning – the reproduction of cells and tissue.
What is Human Cloning?
J Haldane was the first to suggest the concept of human cloning in 1969, a tern used in farming from the turn of the century.
The history of cloning
Lederberg caused controversy with bioethicist Kass, writing “the programmed reproduction of man will, in fact, dehumanise him.” Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, later publicised in his Atlantic Monthly essay, “Moving Toward the Clonal Man”, in 1971.
Dolly the sheep, cloned in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer, human cloning became a hot topic. The first hybrid human clone was created in 1998, by SCNT; a nucleus was taken from a man’s leg cell and inserted into a cow’s egg, and the hybrid cell developed but the resulting embryo was executed within 2 weeks. In 2004 and 2005, Hwang Woo-suk, published two separate articles in the journal Science claiming to have successfully harvested pluripotent, embryonic stem cells from a cloned human blastocyst using SCNT techniques. In 2006 Science retracted both of his articles when the data wasn’t verified and was found to be fabricated.
In 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. The embryos were developed to the blastocyst stage. In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte’s nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells.
In 2013, a group of scientists led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov published the first report of embryonic stem cells created using SCNT. In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells. Four embryonic stem cell lines from human fetal somatic cells were derived from those blastocysts. All four lines were derived using oocytes from the same donor, ensuring that all mitochondrial DNA inherited was identical. In 2018, the first successful cloning of primates with the birth of two live female clones.
Potential and future of human cloning
Observing human pluripotent stem cells grown in culture provides great insight into human embryo development. Studying signal transduction within the early human embryo will hopefully provide unknown details around many diseases and defects. Studying developmental pathways in humans has strengthened the hypothesis that developmental pathways are conserved throughout species. iPSCs and cells created by SCNT are useful for predicting model systems in drug discovery.
Cells produced with SCNT, or iPSCs could eventually be used in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplantation is stem cell therapy. The future could be using this to treat heart disease and diabetes. This type of medicine would allow for autologous transplantation, thus removing the risk of organ transplant rejection by the recipient.
Laws around human cloning
In 2018 approximately 70 countries had banned human cloning.
In December 2006, a bill legalising therapeutic cloning and the creation of human embryos for stem cell research passed the House of Representatives. Therapeutic cloning is now legal in some parts of Australia.
Canadian law prohibits the following: cloning humans, cloning stem cells, growing human embryos for research purposes, and buying or selling of embryos, sperm, eggs or other human reproductive material. Surrogate mothers are legally allowed, as is donation of sperm or eggs for reproductive purposes.
There have been consistent calls in Canada to ban human reproductive cloning since the 1993 Report on New Reproductive Technologies. In the past, the majority of Canadians reject human reproductive cloning. Human dignity is commonly used to justify cloning laws.
Human cloning is prohibited in Article 133 of the Colombian Penal Code.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits reproductive human cloning. The charter is legally binding for the institutions of the European Union.
India has guidelines prohibiting human cloning or reproductive cloning. India allows therapeutic cloning and the use of embryonic stem cells for research purposes. There are legal implications in this case. India has already succeeded in mammalian cloning.
The Federal Assembly of Russia introduced the Federal Law N 54-FZ “On the temporary ban on human cloning” in 2002. President Vladimir Putin signed this moratorium.
In terms of section 39A of the Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983, genetic manipulation of gametes or zygotes outside the human body is absolutely prohibited. A zygote is the cell resulting from the fusion of two gametes.
In 2001 the British government passed The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Regulations 2001 to amend the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 by extending allowable reasons for embryo research to permit research around stem cells and cell nuclear replacement, thus allowing therapeutic cloning. However, in 2001, a pro-life group won a High Court legal challenge, which abolished the regulation. Parliament was quick to pass the Human Reproductive Cloning Act which explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning.
The first license was granted in 2004 to the University of Newcastle to allow them to investigate treatments for diabetes, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. A 2008 Act allows experiments on hybrid human-animal embryos.
The Patients First Act of 2017 (HR 2918, 115th Congress) aims to promote stem cell research, using cells that are “ethically obtained”, that could contribute to a better understanding of diseases and therapies, as well as promote the “derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines without the creation of human embryos”.
In 1998, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2009, the United States Congress voted whether to ban all human cloning, both reproductive and therapeutic (Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act). On March 10, 2010 a bill (HR 4808) was introduced with a section banning federal funding for human cloning. Such a law, if passed, would not have prevented research from occurring in private institutions (such as universities) that have both private and federal funding. However, the 2010 law was not passed.
There are currently no federal laws in the United States which ban cloning completely. Fifteen American states prohibit use of public funds for such activities. Ten states, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey and Rhode Island, have “clone and kill” laws that prevent cloned embryo implantation for childbirth, but allow embryos to be destroyed.
Ethics of human cloning
In bioethics, cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities. Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning in order to generate tissues and organs to treat patients, to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs, and to stave off the effects of ageing. Advocates for reproductive cloning believe that parents who cannot otherwise procreate should benefit.
Opposition to therapeutic cloning mainly centres around the status of embryonic stem cells, which has connections with the abortion debate. Opponents raise concerns that technology is not developed enough to be safe – the American Association for the Advancement of Science. It is commonly suggested by oposition that reproductive cloning would be abused. Some opponents will raise questions on whether clones have rights. “Cloning’s Future” raises serious questions as to whether the embryos have any rights or if the right to life of an embryo is superseded by the will of the donor.
Some Christian theologians perceive the technology as usurping God’s role in creation and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life.
Methods and processes in human cloning
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
In somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. After the donor somatic cell genetic material is transferred into the host oocyte, the cell material is fused with the egg using an electric current. The new cell can be permitted to grow in a surrogate or artificially. This is the process that was used to clone Dolly the sheep. The technique, now refined, has indicated that it was possible to replicate cells and reestablish pluripotency – the potential of an embryonic cell to grow into any one of the numerous different types of mature body cells that make up a complete organism.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)
Creating induced pluripotent stem cells is a longer process. Pluripotency refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm. A specific set of genes, often called reprogramming factors, are introduced into an adult cell type. These factors send signals in the mature cell that cause the cell to become a pluripotent stem cell. Techniques are being discovered frequently on how to better this induction process.
Depending on the method used, reprogramming of adult cells into iPSCs for implantation could have severe limitations in humans. If a virus is used as a reprogramming factor for the cell, cancer-causing genes called oncogenes may be activated. In 2008 scientists discovered a technique that could remove the presence of these oncogenes after pluripotency induction, thereby increasing the potential use of iPSC in humans.
Comparing SCNT to reprogramming – advantages and disadvantages
Both the processes of SCNT and iPSCs have merits and deficits. Historically, reprogramming methods were better studied than SCNT derived embryonic stem cells. The major advantage of SCNT over iPSCs is the speed with which cells can be produced. New studies are working to improve the process of iPSC in terms of both speed and efficiency with the discovery of new reprogramming factors in oocytes. Another advantage of SCNT is its potential to treat mitochondrial disease, as it utilises a donor oocyte.
Recent category posts
Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy. The term is refers to artificial human cloning - the reproduction of cells and...
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or prevents their growth. They can be classified according to their function. Agents that kill microbes...
The cholera pandemic is the longest running global pandemic. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The classic symptom is large...
- Thomas, Isabel (2013). Should scientists pursue cloning?. London: Raintree. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4062-3391-9.
- Haldane, J.B.S. (1963). “Biological Possibilities for the Human Species in the Next Ten Thousand Years”. In Wolstenholme, Gordon (ed.). Man and his future. Novartis Foundation Symposia. London: J. & A. Churchill. pp. 337–361. doi:10.1002/9780470715291.ch22. ISBN 978-0-470-71479-9.
- Lederberg Joshua (1966). “Experimental Genetics and Human Evolution”. The American Naturalist. 100 (915): 519–531. Bibcode:1966BuAtS..22h…4L. doi:10.1086/282446. S2CID 222323744.
- Watson, James. “Moving Toward a Clonal Man: Is This What We Want?” The Atlantic Monthly (1971).
- Park, Alice (April 17, 2014). “Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men”. Time. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- “Details of hybrid clone revealed”. BBC News. June 18, 1999. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Fischbak, Ruth L., John D. Loike, Janet Mindes, and Columbia Center for New Media Teaching & Learning. The Cloning Scandal of Hwang Woo-Suk, part of the online course, Stem Cells: Biology, Ethics, and Applications
- Kennedy D (2006). “Responding to fraud”. Science. 314 (5804): 1353. doi:10.1126/science.1137840. PMID 17138870. S2CID 37403975.
- , Rick Weiss for the Washington Post January 18, 2008 Mature Human Embryos Created From Adult Skin Cells
- French, Andrew J.; Adams, Catharine A.; Anderson, Linda S.; Kitchen, John R.; Hughes, Marcus R.; Wood, Samuel H. (February 2008). “Development of Human Cloned Blastocysts Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer with Adult Fibroblasts”. Stem Cells. 26 (2): 485–493. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2007-0252. PMID 18202077. S2CID 21251761.
- Trounson A, DeWitt ND (2013). “Pluripotent stem cells from cloned human embryos: success at long last”. Cell Stem Cell. 12 (6): 636–8. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.022. PMID 23746970.
- Noggle S, Fung HL, Gore A, Martinez H, Satriani KC, Prosser R, Oum K, Paull D, Druckenmiller S, Freeby M, Greenberg E, Zhang K, Goland R, Sauer MV, Leibel RL, Egli D (2011). “Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state”. Nature. 478 (7367): 70–5. Bibcode:2011Natur.478…70N. doi:10.1038/nature10397. PMID 21979046. S2CID 4370078.
- Daley GQ, Solbakk JH (2011). “Stem cells: Triple genomes go far”. Nature. 478 (7367): 40–1. Bibcode:2011Natur.478…40D. doi:10.1038/478040a. PMID 21979039. S2CID 203897553.
- Chung YG, Eum JH, Lee JE, Shim SH, Sepilian V, Hong SW, Lee Y, Treff NR, Choi YH, Kimbrel EA, Dittman RE, Lanza R, Lee DR (2014). “Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells”. Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777–80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID 24746675.
- Liu, Zhen; et al. (24 January 2018). “Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer”. Cell. 172 (4): 881–887.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020. PMID 29395327. S2CID 206567964. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- *Normile, Dennis (24 January 2018). “These monkey twins are the first primate clones made by the method that developed Dolly”. Science. doi:10.1126/science.aat1066. Retrieved 24 January2018.
- Cyranoski, David (24 January 2018). “First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep – Chinese scientists create cloned primates that could revolutionize studies of human disease”. Nature. 553 (7689): 387–388. Bibcode:2018Natur.553..387C. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01027-z. PMID 29368720. S2CID 4391482.
- Maron, Dina Fine (24 January 2018). “First Primate Clones Produced Using the “Dolly” Method – The success with monkeys could ignite new ethical debates and medical research”. Scientific American. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Briggs, Helen (24 January 2018). “First monkey clones created in Chinese laboratory”. BBC News. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Kolata, Gina (24 January 2018). “Yes, They’ve Cloned Monkeys in China. That Doesn’t Mean You’re Next”. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- Gilbert, Scott F. (2013-06-30). Developmental Biology (10th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9780878939787.
- “cloning | Definition, Process, & Types”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
- Binder, Marc D.; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Windhorst, Uwe, eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of Neuroscience ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3540237358.
- Kaplan, Karen (March 6, 2009). “Cancer threat removed from stem cells, scientists say”. Los Angeles Times.
- Langerova A, Fulka H, Fulka J (2013). “Somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cell lines in humans: pros and cons”. Cell Reprogram. 15 (6): 481–3. doi:10.1089/cell.2013.0054. PMID 24180743.
- Zhu Z, Huangfu D (2013). “Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology”. Development. 140 (4): 705–17. doi:10.1242/dev.086165. PMC 3557771. PMID 23362344.
- Subba Rao M, Sasikala M, Nageshwar Reddy D (2013). “Thinking outside the liver: induced pluripotent stem cells for hepatic applications”. World J. Gastroenterol. 19 (22): 3385–96. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i22.3385. PMC 3683676. PMID 23801830.
- Tobe BT, Brandel MG, Nye JS, Snyder EY (2013). “Implications and limitations of cellular reprogramming for psychiatric drug development”. Exp. Mol. Med. 45 (11): e59. doi:10.1038/emm.2013.124. PMC 3849573. PMID 24232258.
- Singec, Ilyas; Jandial, Rahul; Crain, Andrew; Nikkhah, Guido; Snyder, Evan Y. (February 2007). “The Leading Edge of Stem Cell Therapeutics”. Annual Review of Medicine. 58 (1): 313–328. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.58.070605.115252. PMID 17100553. S2CID 18623750.
- Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation In National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet web site. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010. Cited August 24, 2010
- Cell Basics: What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before these potential uses will be realized? Archived 2017-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. In Stem Cell Information World Wide Web site. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. cited Sunday, April 26, 2009
- Cummings BJ, Uchida N, Tamaki SJ, Salazar DL, Hooshmand M, Summers R, Gage FH, Anderson AJ (September 2005). “Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in spinal cord-injured mice”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (39): 14069–74. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10214069C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507063102. PMC 1216836. PMID 16172374.
- Svendsen CN (2013). “Back to the future: how human induced pluripotent stem cells will transform regenerative medicine”. Hum. Mol. Genet. 22 (R1): R32–8. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt379. PMC 3782070. PMID 23945396.
- Booth C, Soker T, Baptista P, Ross CL, Soker S, Farooq U, Stratta RJ, Orlando G (2012). “Liver bioengineering: current status and future perspectives”. World J. Gastroenterol. 18 (47): 6926–34. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.6926. PMC 3531676. PMID 23322990.
- Jongkamonwiwat N, Noisa P (2013). “Biomedical and clinical promises of human pluripotent stem cells for neurological disorders”. Biomed Res Int. 2013: 1–10. doi:10.1155/2013/656531. PMC 3793324. PMID 24171168.
- Häyry, Matti (2018). “Ethics and cloning”. British Medical Bulletin. 128 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldy031. PMID 30203088.
- “Cloning Fact Sheet”. U.S. Department of Energy Genome Program. 2009-05-11. Archived from the original on 2013-05-02.
- Kfoury C (2007). “Therapeutic cloning: Promises and issues”. McGill Journal of Medicine. 10 (2): 112–20. PMC 2323472. PMID 18523539.
- de Grey, Aubrey; Rae, Michael (2007). Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs that Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-36706-0.
- Staff (August 10, 2001). “In the news: Antinori and Zavos”. Times Higher Education.
- Kfoury C (2007). “Therapeutic cloning: promises and issues”. Mcgill J Med. 10 (2): 112–20. PMC 2323472. PMID 18523539.
- “AAAS Statement on Human Cloning”.
- McGee, G. (October 2011). “Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning”. American Institute of Biological Sciences. Archived from the original on 2013-02-23.
- “Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights”. UNESCO. 1997-11-11. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- McGee, Glenn (2000). The Perfect Baby: Parenthood in the New World of Cloning and Genetics(2nd ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9758-8.
- Havstad, Joyce C. (February 2010). “Human Reproductive Cloning: A Conflict of Liberties”. Bioethics. 24 (2): 71–77. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00692.x. PMID 19076121.
- Sullivan, Bob (November 26, 2003). “Religions reveal little consensus on cloning”. MSNBC. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Sims Bainbridge, William (October 2003). “Religious Opposition to Cloning”. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 13.
- Cohen, Haley (31 July 2015). “How Champion-Pony Clones Have Transformed the Game of Polo”. Vanity Fair. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- “Decree 200/97” (in Spanish). InfoLEG. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- “Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction Act 2002”. NHMRC.gov.au. Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council. 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009.
- “Research cloning – Legal Aspects”. Deutches Referenzzentrum fur Ethik in den Biowissenschaften. April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Philipkoski, Kristen (17 March 2004). “Canada Closes Door on Cloning”. Wired.
- Kleiderman, Erika; Stedman, Ian Norris Kellner (April 2020). “Human germline genome editing is illegal in Canada, but could it be desirable for some members of the rare disease community?”. Journal of Community Genetics. 11 (2): 129–138. doi:10.1007/s12687-019-00430-x. ISSN 1868-310X. PMC 7062950. PMID 31420817.
- Government of Canada, Interagency Advisory Panel on Research Ethics (2019-04-01). “Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans – TCPS 2 (2018) – Chapter 12: Human Biological Materials Including Materials Related to Human Reproduction”. ethics.gc.ca. Retrieved 2020-06-09.
- Matthews, Kristin. “Overview of World Human Cloning Policies”. Connexions. Rice University. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Baylis, Francoise (2004). “Canada Bans Human Cloning”. The Hastings Center Report. republished at Questia.com. 34 (3): 5. PMID 15281719. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- Philipkoski, Kristen (March 17, 2004). “Canada Closes Door on Cloning”. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- “Regulating and treating conception problems”. CBC.ca. December 21, 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- “Ley 599 de 2000 (Julio 24) Por la cual se expide el Código Penal” [Law 599 of 2000 (July 24) which issued the Penal Code]. alcaldiabogota.gov.co (in Spanish). Bogota, Colombia: Bogota Mayoral Office. July 24, 2000. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings
- Signatures and ratifications
- Treaty of Lisbon (2007/C 306/01) Article 6 (1)
- “EU Charter of Fundamental Rights”. Europa (web portal). Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Bagla, Pallava (Jun 24, 2009). “Should India ban human cloning?”. New Delhi: NDTV. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved Apr 18, 2014.
- “Cloning Ethical Policies on the Human Genome, Genetic Research and Services [India]”. Genetics & Public Policy Center. Archived from the original on 2014-04-20.
- World, Business (Sep 20, 2020). “NDRI Uses Clone Technology To Develop Buffalo Calf ‘Tejas’ For High Milk Yield”.
- “5 Biotechnology breakthroughs that were already invented by Hindu gods”.
- APP (5 November 2013). “CII declares human cloning, gender change un-Islamic”. DAWN. Islamabad. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- Dz.U. 2015 poz. 1087
- Федеральный закон от 20 мая 2002 г. N 54-ФЗ “О временном запрете на клонирование человека”
- “Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, II Human and Minority Rights and Freedoms”. Government of Serbia. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- Sithole, Sandra (2011-12-15). “Stem cell research – the regulatory framework in South Africa”. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. 4 (2): 55. doi:10.7196/SAJBL.171 (inactive 2021-01-15). ISSN 1999-7639.
- “Human Cloning and Other Prohibited Practices Act”. Singapore Statues Online. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
- Text of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001 (No. 188) as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.
- SD Pattinson (2006), Medical Law and Ethics, Sweet & Maxwell, ISBN 978-0-421-88950-7
- “Campaigners win cloning challenge”. BBC News. London. 15 November 2001. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- “Lords uphold cloning law”. BBC News. London. 13 March 2003.
- “HFEA grants the first therapeutic cloning licence for research”. HFEA. 11 August 2004. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- “MPs support embryology proposals”. BBC News. London. 23 October 2008.
- “United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning” Archived 2013-12-15 at the Wayback Machine. Bio Etica Web. March 16, 2005.
- “Ad Hoc Committee on an International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings”. United Nations. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
- “Patients First Act of 2017 (HR 2918, 115th Congress)”. Oct 19, 2017.
- “President Clinton in 1993 lifts the ban on taxpayer-funded fetal tissue research. Throughout the following years in February 1997 Dolly was cloned; Clinton launches review of US policy and In May 1997 Federal funding for human cloning [was] banned”. Malakoff, D. (2000-12-22). “SCIENCE POLICY: Clinton’s Science Legacy: Ending on a High Note”. Science. 290 (5500): 2234–2236. doi:10.1126/science.290.5500.2234. PMID 11188713. S2CID 9581221.
- “H.R.4808 – Stem Cell Research Advancement Act of 2009”. congress.gov.
- “Embryonic and fetal research laws”. National Conference of State Legislatures. Jan 1, 2016.
- The Law and Human Cloning
- State Laws on Human Cloning
- 2003 Ark. SB 185
- Iowa Code § 707B.1–4
- La. R.S. 40:1299.36-36.6
- MCLS §§ 333.16274-16275, 333.20197, 333.26401-26406, 750.430a
- R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 23-16.4-1-4
- Va. Code Ann. §§ 32.1–162.21–22
- Hopkins, Patrick (1998). “How Popular media represent cloning as an ethical problem”. The Hastings Center Report. The Hastings Center. 28 (2): 6–13. doi:10.2307/3527566. JSTOR 3527566. PMID 9589288.
- De La Cruz, Yvonne A. “Science Fiction Storytelling and Identity: Seeing the Human Through Android Eyes” (PDF). CSUStan.edu. California State University, Stanislaus. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
- Ebert, Roger. “Multiplicity”. RogerEbert.com. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Douglass, Todd Jr. (July 12, 2008). “The Nude Bomb”. DVDTalk.com. Retrieved September 15,2016.
- tech-writer (September 30, 2005). “A Chiller Thriller”. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Emily Yahr (April 18, 2014). “‘Orphan Black’: Everything you forgot from Season 1 that you need to remember”. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- Daniel Kurland (May 23, 2019). “Us: Who Are the Tethered?”. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- Jason Spiegel (March 23, 2019). “‘Us’ Ending Explained: Could There Be A Sequel?”. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- “Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world” academic article by S. Pattinson & T. Caulfield
- Moving Toward the Clonal Man
- Should We Really Fear Reproductive Human Cloning
- United Nation declares law against cloning.[permanent dead link]
- General Assembly Adopts United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning By Vote of 84-34-37
- Cloning Fact Sheet
- How Human Cloning Will Work